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Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 | Grinnell College us digital millennium copyright act 1998

Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 Designated Agent to Receive Complaints of Copyright Infringement & Procedures of Grinnell College About Grinnell Grinnell at a Glance Tradition Community Mission and Values News Offices and Services Leadership Grinnell Prize Careers Social Media

On October 12, 1998 the Congress passed the  Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 (DMCA) ; complex legislation that makes changes in copyright law to take account of digital, networked, information. Grinnell College subscribes to the DMCA. In accordance with this act, Grinnell College must follow a prescribed set of steps to allow for appropriate resolution of alleged copyright infringement. These steps are presented below.

The College must select a Designated Agent to receive complaints of copyright infringement on Grinnell College's website, and make contact information for the agent available on the website. Accordingly, Grinnell College's agent is:

David Ellis  Information Technology Services 1119 6th Avenue Grinnell College Grinnell, IA 50112

copyright[at]grinnell[dot]edu  Telephone: 641-269-9990 FAX: 641-269-4828

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998: U.S. Copyright Office Summary, stipulates requirements for any complainant, for the services provider (Grinnell College), and for any user (called "subscriber" below) of Grinnell College's network in the event of a copyright dispute. According to the DMCA, a copyright owner must submit a proper written notification to a network "service provider" (such as Grinnell College) alleging misuse of material. This notification must include:

The name, address, and electronic address or physical signature of the complainant Sufficient information to identify the copyrighted work Sufficient information to allow the College to identify the web-based or electronic documents alleged to infringe copyright A statement by the copyright owner that it has a good faith belief that there is no legal basis for the use of the
materials complained of A statement that the information contained in the notification is accur rnglskpi. moncler usa retail llcate, and, under penalty of perjury, that the complainant is authorized to act on behalf of the copyright owner.

The DMCA further requires that: Upon receipt of a proper, written notification of alleged copyright violation, the College's designated agent will promptly remove or block access to the material identified in the notification. At Grinnell, the designated agent will attempt to contact the account or computer owner where the material is stored, forward the complaint to the owner, review the basic provisions of the DMCA with the owner, when possible, and ask that the owner remove or block the material. If the owner does not promptly comply with this request the agent will take action to block or remove the material. If, after removal or blocking of the material the account owner sends a written "counter-notification" to the designated agent that includes a statement, under penalty of perjury, that the material removed or disabled was done so through mistake or misidentification, then, unless the complainant files an action seeking a court order against the account or computer owner, the College will unblock access to the material or put the material back online within 10-14 business days after receiving the counter-notification. Whenever a counter-notification is received by the designated agent, he or she will promptly forward that counter-notice to the complainant.

As stated above, these are the steps that the College will take when it receives proper notification of an alleged copyright violation. If you have any questions about the requirements of the DMCA or Grinnell College's interpretation of that act, please send email to David Ellis .

Related Links:  United States Copyright Office   Copyright Office's Index of Designated Agents for Online Service Providers

September 25, 2014

us digital millennium copyright act 1998

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The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)1 was signed into law by President Clinton on October 28, 1998. The legislation implements two 1996 World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) treaties: the WIPO Copyright Treaty and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty. The DMCA also addresses a number of other significant copyright-related issues.

The DMCA is divided into five titles:

Title I, the " WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act of 1998 ," implements the WIPO treaties. Title II, the " Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act ," creates limitations on the liability of online service providers for copyright infringement when engaging in certain types of activities. Title III, the " Computer Maintenance Competition Assurance Act ," creates an exemption for making a copy of a computer program by activating a computer for purposes of maintenance or repair. Title IV contains six miscellaneous provisions , relating to the functions of the Copyright Office, distance education, the exceptions in the Copyright Act for libraries and for making ephemeral recordings, "webcasting" of sound recordings on the Internet, and the applicability of collective bargaining agreement obligations in the case of transfers of rights in motion pictures. Title V, the " Vessel Hull Design Protection Act ," creates a new form of protection for the design of vessel hulls.

For more information read the full DMCA online .

The statute also establishes procedures for proper notification, and rules as to its effect. (Section 512(c)(3)). Under the notice and takedown procedure, a copyright owner submits a notification under penalty of perjury, including a list of specified elements, to the service provider's designated agent. Failure to comply substantially with the statutory requirements means that the notification will not be considered in determining the requisite level of knowledge by the service provider. If, upon receiving a proper notification, the service provider promptly removes or blocks access to the material identified in the notification, the provider is exempt from monetary liability. In addition, the provider is protected from any liability to any person for claims based on its having taken down the material. (Section 512(g)(1)).

In order to protect against the possibility of erroneous or fraudulent notifications, certain safeguards are built into section 512. Subsection (g)(1) gives the subscriber the opportunity to respond to the notice and takedown by filing a counter notification. In order to qualify for the protection against liability for taking down material, the service provider must promptly notify the subscriber that it has removed or disabled access to the material. If the subscriber serves a counter notification complying with statutory requirements, including a statement under penalty of perjury that the material was removed or disabled through mistake or misidentification, then unless the copyright owner files an action seeking a court order against the subscriber, the service provider must put the material back up within 10-14 business days after receiving the counter notification.

Penalties are provided for knowing material misrepresentations in either a notice or a counter notice. Any person who knowingly materially misrepresents that material is infringing or that it was removed or blocked through mistake or misidentification, is liable for any resulting damages (including costs and attorneys' fees) incurred by the alleged infringer, the copyright owner or its licensee, or the service provider. (Section 512(f)).

Limitation for Information Location Tools

Section 512(d) relates to hyperlinks online directories, search engines and the like. It limits liability for the acts of referring or linking users to a site that contains infringing material by using such information location tools, if the following conditions are met:

The provider must not have the requisite level of knowledge that the material is infringing. The knowledge standard is the same as under the limitation for information residing on systems or networks. If the provider has the right and ability to control the infringing activity, the provider must not receive a financial benefit directly attributable to the activity. Upon receiving a notification of claimed infringement, the provider must expeditiously take down or block access to the material.

These are essentially the same conditions that apply under the previous limitation, with some differences in the notification requirements. The provisions establishing safeguards against the possibility of erroneous or fraudulent notifications, as discussed above, as well as those protecting the provider against claims based on having taken down the material apply to this limitation. (Sections 512(f)-(g)).

Special Rules Regarding Liability of Nonprofit Educational Institutions

Section 512(e) determines when the actions or knowledge of a faculty member or graduate student employee who is performing a teaching or research function may affect the eligibility of a nonprofit educational institution for one of the four limitations on liability As to the limitations for transitory communications or system caching, the faculty member or student shall be considered a "person other than the provider," so as to avoid disqualifying the institution from eligibility. As to the other limitations, the knowledge or awareness of the faculty member or student will not be attributed to the institution. The following conditions must be met

the faculty member or graduate student's infringing activities do not involve providing online access to course materials that were required or recommended during the past three years; the institution has not received more than two notifications over the past three years that the faculty member or graduate student was infringing, and the institution provides all of its users with informational materials describing and promoting compliance with copyright law. Title III: Computer Maintenance or Repair

Title III expands the existing exemption relating to computer programs in section 117 of the Copyright Act, which allows the owner of a copy of a program to make reproductions or adaptations when necessary to use the program in conjunction with a computer. The amendment permits the owner or lessee of a computer to make or authorize the making of a copy of a computer program in the course of maintaining or repairing that computer. The exemption only permits a copy that is made automatically when a computer is activated, and only if the computer already lawfully contains an authorized copy of the program The new copy cannot be used in any other manner and must be destroyed immediately after the maintenance or repair is completed.

Title IV. Miscellaneous Provisions Clarification of the Authority of the Copyright Office

Section 401(b), adds language to section 701 of the Copyright Act confirming the Copyright Office's authority to continue to perform the policy and international functions that it has carried out for decade's under its existing general authority.

Ephemeral Recordings for Broadcasters

Section 112 of the Copyright Act grants an exemption for the making of "ephemeral recordings." These are recordings made in order to facilitate a transmission. Under this exemption, for example, a radio station can record a set of songs and broadcast from the new recording rather than from the original CDs (which would have to be changed "on the fly" during the course of a broadcast).

As it existed prior to enactment of the DMCA section 112 permitted a transmitting organization to make and retain for up to six months (hence the term "ephemeral") no more than one copy of a work if it was entitled to transmit a public performance or display of the work either under a license or by virtue of the fact that there is no general public performance right in sound recordings (as distinguished from musical works).

The Digital Performance Right in Sound Recordings Act of 1995 (DPRA) created, for the first time in US. copyright law, a limited public performance right in sound recordings. The right only covers public performances by means of digital transmission and is subject to an exemption for digital broadcasts (i.e., transmissions by FCC licensed terrestrial broadcast stations) and a statutory license for certain subscription transmissions that are not made on demand (i.e., in response to the specific request of a recipient)

Section 402 of the DMCA expands the section 112 exemption to include recordings that are made to facilitate the digital transmission of a sound recording where the transmission is made under the DPRA's exemption for digital broadcasts or statutory license. As amended section 112 also permits in some circumstances the circumvention of access control technologies in order to enable an organization to make an ephemeral recording.

Distance Education Study

In the course of consideration of the DMCA, legislators expressed an interest in amending the Copyright Act to promote distance education, possibly through an expansion of the existing exception for instructional broadcasting in section 110(2).Section 403 of the DMCA directs the ' e Copyright Office to consult with affected parties and make recommendations to Congress on how to promote distance education through digital technologies. The Office must report to Congress within six months of enactment.

The Copyright Office is directed to consider the following issues:

The need for a new exemption; Categories of works to be included in any exemption; Appropriate quantitative limitations on the portions of works that may be used under any exemption; Which parties should be eligible for any exemption; Which parties should be eligible recipients of distance education material under any exemption; The extent to which use of technological protection measures should be mandated as a condition of eligibility for any exemption; The extent to which the availability of licenses should be considered in assessing eligibility for any exemption; and Other issues as appropriate. Exemption for Nonprofit Libraries and Archives

Section 404 of the DMCA amends the exemption for nonprofit libraries and archives in section 108 of the Copyright Act to accommodate digital technologies and evolving preservation practices. Prior to enactment of the DMCA, section 108 permitted such libraries and archives to make a single facsimile (Le., not digital) copy of a work for purposes of preservation or interlibrary loan. As amended, section 108 permits up to three copies, which may be digital, provided that digital copies are not made available to the public outside the library premises. In addition, the amended section permits such a library or archive to copy a work into a new format if the original format becomes obsolete- that 'is, the machine or device used to render the work perceptible is no longer manufactured or is no longer reasonably available in the commercial marketplace.

Webcasting Amendments to the Digital Performance Right in Sound Recordings

As discussed above, in 1995 Congress enacted the DPRA creating a performance right in sound recordings that is limited to digital transmissions Under that legislation, three categories of digital transmissions were addressed: broadcast transmissions, which were exempted from. the performance right; subscription transmissions, which were generally subject to a statutory license; and on-demand transmissions, which were subject to the full exclusive right. Broadcast transmissions under the DPRA are transmissions made by FCC-licensed terrestrial broadcast stations.

In the past several years, a number of entities have begun making digital transmissions of sound recordings over the Internet using streaming audio technologies. This activity does not fall squarely within any of the three categories that were addressed in the DPRA. Section 405 of the DMCA amends the DPRA, expanding the statutory license for subscription transmissions to include webcasting as a new category of "eligible nonsubscription transmissions."

In addition to expanding the scope of the statutory license, the DMCA revises the criteria that any entity must meet in order to be eligible for the license (other than those who are subject to a grandfather clause, leaving the existing criteria intact). It revises the considerations for setting rates as well (again, subject to a grandfather clause), directing arbitration panels convened under the law to set the royalty rates at fair market value.

This provision of the DMCA also creates a new statutory license for making ephemeral recordings. As indicated above, section 402 of the DMCA amends section 112 of the Copyright Act to permit the making of a single ephemeral recording to facilitate the digital transmission of sound recording that is permitted either under the DPRA's broadcasting exemption or statutory license. Transmitting organizations that wish to make more than the single ephemeral recording of a sound recording that is permitted under the outright exemption in section 112 are now eligible for a statutory license to make such additional ephemeral recordings. In addition, the new statutory license applies to the making of ephemeral recordings by transmitting organizations other than broadcasters who are exempt from the digital performance right, who are not covered by the expanded exemption in section 402 of the DMCA.

Assumption of Contractual Obligations upon Transfers of Rights in Motion Pictures

Section 416 addresses concerns about the ability of writers, directors and screen actors to obtain residual payments for the exploitation of motion pictures in situations where the producer is no longer able to make these payments. "Me guilds' collective bargaining agreements currently require producers to obtain assumption agreements from distributors in certain circumstances, by which the distributor assumes the producer's obligation to make such residual payments. Some production companies apparently do not always do so, leaving the guilds without contractual privity enabling them to seek recourse from the distributor.

The DMCA adds a new chapter to Title 28of the US. Code that imposes on transferees those obligations to make residual payments that the producer would be required to have the transferee assume under the relevant collective bargaining agreement. The obligations attach only if the distributor knew or had reason to know that the motion picture was produced subject to a collective bargaining agreement or in. the event of a court order confirming an arbitration award under the collective bargaining agreement that the producer cannot satisfy within ninety days. There are two classes of transfers that are excluded from the scope of this provision, The first is transfers limited to public performance rights, and the second is grants of security interests, along with any subsequent transfers from the security interest holder.

The provision also directs the Comptroller General in consultation with the Register of Copyrights, to conduct a study on the conditions in the motion picture industry that gave rise to this provision, and the impact of the provision on the industry. The study is due two years from enactment.

Title V: Protection of Certain Original Designs

Title V of the DMCA, entitled the Vessel Hull Design Protection Act (VHDPA), adds a new chapter 13 to Title 17 of the US. Code. It creates a new system for protecting original designs of certain useful articles that make the article attractive or distinctive in appearance. For purposes of the VHDPA, "useful articles" are limited to the hulls (including the decks) of vessels no longer than 200 feet.

A design is protected under the VHDPA as soon as a useful article embodying the design is made public or a registration for the design is published. Protection is lost if an application for registration is not made within two years after a design is first made public, but a design is not registrable if it has been made public more than one year before the date of the application for registration. Once registered, protection continues for ten years from the date protection begins

The VHDPA is subject to a legislative sunset: the Act expires two years from enactment (October 28, 2000). The Copyright Office is directed to conduct two joint studies with the Patent and Trademark Office- the first by October 28, 1999 and the second by October 28, 2000-- evaluating the impact of the VHDPA.

Effective Dates

Most provisions of the DMCA are effective on the date of enactment. There are, however, several exceptions. The technical amendments in Title I that relate to eligibility of works for protection under U.S. copyright law by virtue of the new WIPO treaties do not take effect until the relevant treaty comes into force.

Similarly, restoration of copyright protection for such works does not become effective until the relevant treaty comes into force. The prohibition on the act of circumvention of access control measures does not take effect until two years from enactment (October 28, 2000).

1 Pub. L No. 105-304,112 Stat. 2860 (Oct. 28,1998).

2 "Copying" is used in this context as shorthand for the exercise of any of the exclusive rights of an author under section 106 of the Copyright Act. Consequently, a technological measure that prevents unauthorized distribution or public performance of a work would fall in this second category.

3 The Fairness in Musical Licensing Act, Title II of Pub. L. No. 105-298, 112 Stat. 2827, 2830-34 (Oct. 27, 1998) also a" a new section 512 to the Copyright Act. Ibis duplication of section numbers will need to be corrected in a technical amendments bill.